August 26, 2004

Thomas Jefferson and Dumas Malone

Does Thomas Jefferson deserve a biographer like Dumas Malone? Does anyone deserve a biographer like Dumas Malone?

From Dumas Malone (1962), Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty (New York: Little, Brown), pp. 45 ff.:

Early in the year, Jefferson, writing a private letter to William Short [TJ to Short, Jan 3, 1793; Ford, VI, 153-7], now at The Hague, in the paternal tone which he had not yet laid aside, chided his former secretary for the "extreme warmth" with which the latter had censured the proceedings of the Jacobins [Robespierre and company] in recent letters. He did this at the injunction of the President [Washington], he said, expressing the fear that if Short's criticisms became known they would injure him at home as well as abroad, since they would not be relished by his countrymen. This private letter contains as fervid comments as Jefferson ever made on the French Revolution, and it has been widely quoted by later writers for just that reason.

Jefferson's proneness to express himself more vehemently in private letters and memoranda than in public papers and official pronouncements does not make him unique among human beings. Other responsible officers besides him have let themselves go in private while weighing their public words, though the reverse has often been the case with campaign orators--of whom he was never one. Whether the measured judgments of a responsible statesman or the unrestrained private language of the same man should be regarded as the better index of his true sentiments is perhaps an unanswerable question, and both must be taken into account by anoyone seeking to arrive at truth. A statesman must be judged at last by his public policies and official acts, which represent the results of his sober deliberation, but private language affords an important clue to the state of his own mind and emotions. The contrast was unusually sharp in the case of Jefferson, who imposed extraordinary restraint on himself as a public man.... To hostile interpreters this apparent contradiction has lent color to the charge of duplicity... [but] his friends could not have been unaware of his proneness to exaggeration when blowing off steam in private; and the persons most aware of it should have been his young friends [like Short].... No saying can be fully understood out of its specific setting, and some of the most vivid of Jefferson's were pedagogical in purpose.... This letter to Short is a case in point. The essential and abiding truth embedded in it is that all human progress is costly, especially progress toward liberty and democracy; butr much of its imagery is such as poets would use--not mathematicians or coldly calculating statesmen

Jefferson's defense of the Jacobins... need not detain us.... [H]is information... could not be up to date... To him the Jacobins were merely the republican element in the old party of the Patriots, and the Feuillants... the monarchical. His friend Lafayette had belonged to the latter group, and he himself had been far from unsympathetic....

But in the year 1793... he was convinced that the "expunging" of the King had become an absolute necessity....

[...]

Short needed comfort, however, more than logic. The personal cost of the revolution was mounting, and the human toll was being taken among the very people whom he and Jefferson had valued most during the latter's stay in France. Lafayette... in custody, and the liberal-minded Duc de la Rouchefoucauld... snatched from his carriage and killed before the eyes of his old mother and young wife... [this] affected Short the most... embitter[ed] him. Jefferson... was well aware of the general trend when he sought to bring philosophy to bear on these fearful developments.

In the struggle which was necessary, many guilty persons fell without the forms of trial, and with them some innocent. These I deplore as much as anybody, and shall deplore some of them to the day of my death. But I deplore them as I should have done had they fallen in battle.... The liberty of the whole earth was depending on the issue of the contest, and was ever such a prize won with so little innocent blood? My own affections have been deeply wounded by some of the martyrs to the cause, but rather than it should have failed, I would have seen half the earth desolated. Were there but an Adam and an Eve left in every country, and left free, it would be better than as it now is.

In the last two sentences Jefferson indulged in hyperbole.... [T]he record of Jefferson's reasoned and disciplined life gives every ground to suppose that he himself would have recoiled from [their literal application].... He would certainly have said no such thing in public, and he could hardly have been expected to anticipate that private words of his would be quoted to schoolboys in later generations, seized upon by political partisans, or exploited by reckless demagogues.

In writing to one he regarded as a son he let his poetic imagery run away with him.... [H]e was saying that despotism had been overthrown in France... would eventually be overcome everywhere... in the light of this vast triumph for... human liberty the losses must be regarded as slight. He afterwards had to revise the casualty lists upward, but he was prepared for that... the abiding significance of his relfections lies in his frank recognition that the cost of liberty may be and frequently is exceedingly high...


p. 12: The "coalition" with Hamilton, which the President [Washington] suggested in February, Jefferson objected to chiefly on domestic grounds.... [H]e renewed his allegations about improper influences on the legislative branch of the government. "My wish was to see both houses of Congress cleansed of all persons interested in the bank or public stocks," he said; "and that, a pure legislature being given us, I should always be ready to acquiesce under their determinations, even if contrary to my own opinions, for that I subscribe to the principle that the will of the majority honestly expressed should give law." Also, he confirmed the fears of his Chief about discontent among Southerners, attributing this to the sacrifice of of their judgment and interests to those of the North, by means of a "corrupt squadron" in Congress under the command of the Secretary of the Treasury.

Thomas Jefferson was a great man and a small man. We know the great man well. Biographers like Dumas Malone however, try hard to keep us from knowing the small man: the one who was too approving of the Jacobins and the Terror; the funder of the first journalistic Republican Slime Machine; the owner of the sex-slave Sally Hemings.

Posted by DeLong at August 26, 2004 06:43 PM | TrackBack
Comments

George W. Bush was/is a small man and... an even smaller man. A Malone biography of him would be quite short.

Posted by: Kaus Hackula at August 26, 2004 07:03 PM

I heard a Gore Vidal talk, when he in passing wiped the floor with Dumas Malone and his Jefferson scholarship. Among other things, he asked: "If we have Dumas Malone, why not Balzac O'Toole"?

Posted by: anatol at August 26, 2004 07:25 PM

I deeply appreciate the Professor's attempt to be realistic and even handed in discussing the Sainted Founders. Both in this post and the recent dialog. I think that there has been way too much Founder Worship in the US and that has harmed our understanding of them and our heritage.

The Dumas school of Jefferson worship is irritating. But Hamilton has biographers just as partisan. Richard Matthews wrote a book praising Jefferson as a progressive majoritarian egalitarian direct democracy type of guy -and certainly not a libertarian, or even much of a believer in society driven by rights and entitlements at all. Matthews likes that idea. A very partisan Hamilton man, Forrest McDonald, gave the book a glowing review. But McDonald didn't waste much space actually evaluating the book's merits. He thinks that progressive majoritarian egalitarianism is a very very bad thing, and spent most of the review crowing about how the book showed that Jefferson was a total crank.

I think that some of the problem is that every society needs some founding myths to establish a social identity. Depending on your tastes, Rome had Romulus, or a band of escaped convicts. In the US, these founding myths are intimately tied up with the Founders and our ideas of their political ideologies.

And what thanks has anyone get who tried to discourage this tendency to tie up the US's identity with a political ideology, as justified by this or that Sainted Founder? Not much as far as I can see. John Adams said that ideology was the science of idiots, and the word should be changed to idiotology. And right before he died, he gave a quite ambiguous appraisal of the significance of the American Revolution. He was asked to explain the meaning of his appraisal and he said something like "I give you independence forever, and not a word more!" I don't think most people in the US want that kind of independence. We want to rely on the founders to justify our own political beliefs.

So even though I think Socratic dialogs should be reserved for wild and crazy topics like the market social welfare function, I am glad that the Prof has a sensible attitude towards the founders.

Posted by: jml at August 26, 2004 07:42 PM

Hamilton has biographers just as irritating as Malone, yes, but nobody CARES about Hamilton's irritating biographers, whereas everyone who wasn't stoned in their Early American History class knows who Dumas Malone is. Forrest McDonald just isn't in the same league.

Posted by: schwa at August 26, 2004 10:59 PM

Wow, myaan, what a downer... like don't be so harsh, dude.

Posted by: jml at August 26, 2004 11:46 PM

Dumas.

The only first name that would've been more fitting is Athole.

Posted by: ogmb at August 27, 2004 02:18 AM

Add to the list of Jefferson's sins his refusal to recognize the Haitian republic.

Posted by: Barry Freed at August 27, 2004 02:54 AM

One of the most attractive things about Jefferson is his derivation of his positions from a few clear principles. It is also one of the most unattractive things. Where history has vindicated him, as on church-state relations, he looks like a great sage ahead of his time. On matters like slavery and the Jacobins, not so good. Luckily for his career, he knew when to shut up about his more unpopular views, else he'd have been the Alan Keyes of the Federalist Period.

Posted by: Roger Bigod at August 27, 2004 03:43 AM

The only true heroic American president was Bill Clinton.

If only Kerry would bring him on the stump.

Only Clinton can make Kerry unbeatable.

Posted by: Genevieve Dunbar at August 27, 2004 04:15 AM

Isn't the real issue with Jefferson that he fundamentally mistrusted and misunderstood capitalism? Weren't his battles with Hamilton at bottom really about Jefferson's mistrust of large capital markets?

Seems to me the most telling criticism of Jefferson is that he (and later Jackson) never "got" economics. At least on a national scale.

Posted by: otey at August 27, 2004 05:36 AM

I am disappointed with the Jefferson bashing. I hope we soon get a fair and balanced picture of the crypto-monarchists Adams and Hamilton.

Support for the French Revolution can not be divorced from the very real Anglophilia of the Federalists; interpretation of foreign affairs through the lens of domestic politics is a forgiveable sin.

Bache, Duane, Callendor, the "the first journalistic Republican Slime Machine," were much more admirable than Fenno or any of the chums working for the Federalists. Jeff Pasley's Tyranny of the Printers convincingly argues that the rise of republican (small r) printers was a key point in the establishment of an egalitarian ethic in America. See http://pasleybrothers.com/newspols/

Posted by: Dave Meyer at August 27, 2004 06:30 AM

Personally, I always think that the Jacobins got a raw deal and are ripe for a bit of historical revisionism.

Posted by: dsquared at August 27, 2004 06:30 AM

Read John Adam's recent biography. Makes Jefferson look terrible.

"Only Clinton can make Kerry unbeatable."

interesting thought. Why isn't The Big Dog out there?

Posted by: MattB at August 27, 2004 06:48 AM

Dsquared got there first. I don't think that "The Tale of Two Cities" gives us an accurate view of the French Revolution.

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the owner of the sex-slave Sally Hemings.

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Posted by: Grand Moff Texan at August 27, 2004 06:57 AM

Some comments on Jefferson:

* He was a remarkable man, as President John F.
Kennedy quipped that the event was "the most
extraordinary collection of talent, of human
knowledge, that has ever gathered at the White
House, with the possible exception of when Thomas
Jefferson dined alone."
* The closer you study him, the less you are
impressed, the exact opposite of Washington.
When he freed his slaves after his death, they
were kicked out with nothing, and ended up back
in slavery. Washington set up fonds for his
slaves to make the transition.
* I have to object to describing as the funder of
the first Republican Slime Machine. First, the
stuff on the other side was worse, and second,
his party, the Democratic Republicans, is the
Democratic Party. It never disbanded and
reformed, it just had a name change during
Jackson's term.

Posted by: Matthew Saroff at August 27, 2004 07:21 AM

I have to disagree with schwa. I've met Forrest Macdonald and took one of his classes, and he is unbelievably irritating.

Posted by: Mac Thomason at August 27, 2004 07:29 AM

I've read that the only slaves Jefferson freed were children of Sally Hemings. Jefferson died bankrupt, so it's understandable that he wouldn't have provided for freed slaves. The underlying problem is said to be the collapse of the Virginia tobacco economy in the 1820-40 period. All the account books, inventories etc. that Jefferson kept gave the illusion of control to a situation he couldn't do much about. The Virginia planters had large debts to Scottish factors in the period before the Revolution, and excaping these debts may have been a motive for indeiendence.

Posted by: Roger Bigod at August 27, 2004 08:18 AM

If he weren't dead, maybe we could call on Walter Jackson Bate to rescue the human Jefferson from Malone like he rescued the human Johnson from Boswell.

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Posted by: Adrian Spidle at August 27, 2004 08:54 AM

Jefferson: My wish was to see both houses of Congress cleansed of all persons interested in the bank or public stocks

Wow

Posted by: a at August 27, 2004 09:21 AM

Brad, what are you saying? Do you think the American revolution was an immaculate conception? Were there no innocents killed? Was there no property taken? Were no injustices commited? Furthermore, did the French people not have good reason for a revolution (even more so than the Americans)?

You haven't attacked Jefferson or Washington or Hamilton for their support of the American revolution. Why attack Jefferson for his support of the French revolution?

Yes, the French Revolution went bad (the American revolution almost went bad too and Jefferson had a lot to do with putting it back on course with the revolution of 1800) but put yourself in that time. When should one have known? What consistent rule will, at the time they are occuring, allow support of the American revolution but not of the French?

Posted by: Alex Tabarrok at August 27, 2004 10:45 AM

Gouverneur Morris was ambassador to France after Jefferson and was there during the worst of the Terror. He remarked that the French wanted to have a written Constitution but lacked the citizenry to run one. He harbored aristocrats. But he had also arranged much of the financing of the American Revolution. So it was perfectly possible to approve of one revolution and not the other.

Posted by: Roger Bigod at August 27, 2004 11:03 AM

..."interesting thought. Why isn't The Big Dog out there?"

Big Dog is presently on a book tour in Europe. I understand he has agreed to make eight appearances on behalf of Kerry/Edwards prior to the election.

Posted by: bncthor at August 27, 2004 11:05 AM

Alex Tabarrok raises some good points. My interpretation of his points are:
1. The American Revolution, and US economic development, was only clean if you forget about the Tories and Native Americans.
2. What makes you think that there are pretty, clean solutions to every situation?
3. If there are clean pretty solutions, what makes you think that some founders had them, and others did not, or for some obscure reason, preferred uglier ones?

From my reading, Jefferson and Madison dealt with the issue of how a country like pre-revolutionary France could develop a democratic-republican government by thanking God that they didn't have to deal with it.

There is a letter in which Jefferson writes about meeting the impoverished French peasant, the need for land reform, and land redistribution in France, and the role of government in recirculating wealth of society through all the classes. He concludes by saying that the US is lucky because there is plenty of free land (if you exclude Native Americans), and wouldn't have to deal with the problem.

And Madison can get very gloomy thinking through the long run consequences of Malthusian doctrine. But Madison's conclusion about the implications for the US was simple and happy: such a state of affairs was a long way off -a long way off from his day.

So, what did the Founders write that gives good advice for how to deal with countries with great concentrations of wealth, a large impoverished class, and few unclaimed resources?

I think that it is also a mistake to think that the Founders where cleanly divided into for and against on the French Revolution. Jefferson's preferred approach at the start of the revolution had been a gradual change, beginning with France moving towards a constitutional monarchy. And he thought the nice and pretty way almost happened except for the influence of the evil French Queen. But that gets us into his sexism, so we won't go there.

And I believe there is a letter by Hamilton of Lafayette(?) that said that something had to change in France, but he was fearful that the change would get out of hand. Hamilton was pretty vague about how to wait until the proper time, or what the proper time would be, and his own thought on the influence of oppressed masses on history should have lead him to the conclusion that waiting for a better time was completely infeasible.

And we have Jefferson's word that Washington thought that the French Revolution had produced horrible violence, but the general course was a necessary development.

Posted by: jml at August 27, 2004 01:27 PM

MattB - For all that McCullough's brick on Adams is a useful corrective to decades of being sneered at by both Hamiltonians and Jeffersonians, he's just as bad as Malone in trying much too hard to absolve his subject of any responsibility for all the really nasty crap that happened on his watch.

Mac - Oh, I would never dream of saying Forrest McDonald wasn't in Malone's league in irritation. He's the original pompous windbag. (Although it's never been my bad fortune to have to take a class with him.) But his Hamilton biography's never had the stature in Hamilton scholarship that Malone's Jefferson had/has in Jefferson scholarship, and it never will.

And without wanting to feed the troll, I'm a big Big Dog fan, but "heroic" is definitely not a word I'd associate with him.

Posted by: schwa at August 27, 2004 02:37 PM

Doesn't Ron Chernow have a bio out on Hamilton? Or am I wrong here? Chernow's "The House of Morgan" was, I think, remarkable.

Posted by: EasyE at August 27, 2004 03:05 PM

Malone's English is no prize either.

Posted by: Frank Wilhoit at August 27, 2004 03:18 PM

dsquared:
"Personally, I always think that the Jacobins got a raw deal and are ripe for a bit of historical revisionism."

This sounds intriguing, care to elaborate? Do
you mean the Jacobins as a group or are you
seriously suggesting reevaluation of personalities
such as Robespierre and St. Just (and to lesser
extent Danton or Herbert)?
I've always been fascinated by these guys and
there is a certain romantic attraction but from
everything I've read there's just no around it.
They were bastards.

Posted by: radek at August 27, 2004 04:24 PM

Thomas Jefferson:

he could own blacks and back jacobins, but could not back black jacobins.

Also, Adrian Spittle, you are taking A class in history. Get over your damn self, freshman. Hitler controlled one of the most powerful states in the world. Osama controls a cave. He can kill thousands of us, whereas Hitler killed millions. Where would Osama have his death camps, exactly? Is his vaunted Luftwaffe amassing on the Mexican border? The big bad arab man is not going to kill you, you little freak. We'll get him first, and Kerry will be the one to do it.

Posted by: Padraig at August 28, 2004 12:04 AM

This

2. What makes you think that there are pretty, clean solutions to every situation?

is an excellent question for the prof.

Is the answer simply that this belief is a necessary condition for the existence of his blog? If the hindsight-fueled analyses were removed, there wouldn't be much left here except Berkeley weather reports.

Posted by: lionel at August 28, 2004 12:13 AM

That last piece of spam is pretty impressive!

The preceding discussion has been very good at evoking the complexities of the real politics of the real revolutionary era, instead of some nice schematic one where all the problems were solvable.

Good comment, jml.

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